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CarbonStarTM Systems, Inc.

Pioneering in Catalytic Vacuum Pyrolysis for the Production of Highest Quality Biochar, Bio Oils, Bio Gas, and Wood Vinegar while Permanently Sequestering Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

History

The CarbonStar mobile catalytic vacuum pyrolysis system is the result of 16 years of research and development

Mission

To enable individuals, municipalities, and companies to share in the $100 trillion CO2 removal industry

Quantity

The CarbonStar mobile catalytic vacuum pyrolysis system converts any form of biomass into carbon negative biochar

Atmospheric and Oceanic
Carbon Capture Technology

Our planet is unhealthy due to excess carbon in the atmosphere. However the problem goes beyond that. We also have excess carbon in the oceans causing acidification and warming, resulting in loss of vital coral life and retarded shell formation of the crustaceans that populate the lower end of the food chain. Further the use of fossil fuels adds CO2 to the atmosphere while less than optimal agricultural methods reduce the carbon absorbing properties of the soil, one of the planet’s major carbon sinks. Lastly, decomposition of our excessive waste streams and environmentally impacted dead and decomposing biomass contribute methane, a very powerful greenhouse gas (GHG), to the problems we face.

Environmental Fact Sheet

1. For any level of CO2 in the atmosphere, the planet will heat to a fixed, stable temperature. The rate of CO2 rise has been increasing since 1950. [1] Current CO2 level as of July 2021 is 417.

2. Based on 400,000 years of ice core data and 60 years of monthly readings by Keeling, the time lag from the point where a certain CO2 level stabilizes to attainment of the planet’s stable temperature is centuries.[2]

3. This means that even if we achieve Net Zero CO2 emissions today, we will still see an 8dF planetary temperature rise. This was acknowledged recently by CA Governor Gavin Newsome.

Environmental Fact Sheet

1. For any level of CO2 in the atmosphere, the planet will heat to a fixed, stable temperature. The rate of CO2 rise has been increasing since 1950. [1] Current CO2 level as of July 2021 is 417.

2. Based on 400,000 years of ice core data and 60 years of monthly readings by Keeling, the time lag from the point where a certain CO2 level stabilizes to attainment of the planet’s stable temperature is centuries.[2]

3. This means that even if we achieve Net Zero CO2 emissions today, we will still see an 8dF planetary temperature rise. This was acknowledged recently by CA Governor Gavin Newsome.

How the CarbonStar system can Help to Solve our Major Environmental Challenges

1. For every ton of waste wood biomass processed, the CarbonStar system produces enough biochar to permanently sequester one ton of atmospheric CO2, displace 60 to 90 gallons of fossil fuels with carbon neutral bio oils, 10-40 gallons of wood vinegar for agricultural use, and provides 10,000 cubic feet of clean, high BTU, carbon neutral bio gas.

2. The biochar is in activated form, enabling its use to clean contaminated water, draw toxins from soil, detoxify soil borne aflotoxins, and to recarbonize and replenish depleted agricultural soils with new microbial life, while enhancing existing arable soils resulting in increases in the soil’s atmospheric CO2 drawdown and crop yields. The biochar can be used to reclaim unproductive land, enhance animal health, strengthen cement, and many other purposes.

The CarbonStar system incorporates a pyrolysis process whereby biomass feed stocks are heated in an oxygen depleted environment to drive off volatile substances leaving biochar, a high carbon material, behind. In the CarbonStar system, as diagrammed in Figure 1, various feed stocks pass through an airlock into an evacuated 28 foot long heated tube containing an auger to move the feed stock at a controlled speed along its length. The tube has been previously infused with a catalyst to accelerate the chemical activity within. As the biomass heats up under a vacuum, volatiles are driven off as bio gases in a process known as depolymerization. When all volatiles have been driven off, the solid biochar leaves the vacuum tube through an airlock. The bio gases are then drawn from the vacuum tube where they are cooled, condensed, separated into two fractions then moved into storage tanks. The remaining bio gases and water vapor are further chilled then enter a separation tank. The gases are then either compressed, or combusted in a boiler or electric generator to produce the power to operate the CarbonStar system. The remaining liquid wood vinegar is used in the agricultural sector to improve soil quality, as a plant nutrient to increase yields, and as a herbicide or pesticide to control pests.

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info@carbonstar.systems

PO Box 188, Easthampton, MA 01027

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CarbonStar System’s Advantages

How CarbonStar™ can help to solve major environmental challenges

As the most current generation of proven Carbon Dioxide Removal technologies, the patented CarbonStar system is a much needed complement to solar, wind, and biomass energy generation as well as waste to energy systems.

The CarbonStar system offers several important advantages to other technologies:

  • Processes numerous forms of biomass and waste streams
    The CarbonStar system pyrolysis process has been tested using wood chips, sawdust, oil seeds, agricultural waste, municipal solid waste, sugar cane bagasse, bio solids, and other feedstocks.
  • Operational 24/7 regardless of weather conditions
    CarbonStar’s system will operate efficiently and continuously with proper maintenance. Itscomputerized controls provide continual feedback from numerous temperature, pressure, motion, and other sensors. Advanced software options offer remote operating control and monitoring of local or distant CarbonStar systems by computers or mobile devices.
  • Stores the energy it produces 
    Depending on the type of feed stock being used, the CarbonStar system produced research quality biochar as well as bio oils and bio gas. These energy outputs can be used or stored for much later use.
  • Permanently sequesters carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and oceans
    CarbonStar is a true carbon dioxide sequestering system. Life cycle analysis at our facility indicates that the CarbonStar system sequesters 367 pounds of atmospheric CO2 while emitting only 67 pounds of CO2 from forest to final markets.  This compares very favorably with other processes that use the combustion of gas, oil, or wood to produce biochar. Such processes are very often carbon positive, producing more CO2 than they sequester. An extreme example is carbon derived from the fly ash of biomass electricity generating plants which combust 1200 tons of wood, emitting more than 2,200 tons of CO2 to produce 10 tons of caustic fly ash containing 4 to 5 tons of carbon. Some of this caustic fly ash is sold as biochar, but it is certainly not sequestering CO2; it emits 440 tons of CO2 per ton of carbon recovered. This is important to note if applying for carbon removal subsidies. Further, when sargassum or seaweed is used as a feedstock, the CarbonStar system sequesters CO2 from the ocean, helping to address oceanic warming, coral loss, acidification, and food chain disruption.
  • Produces activated biochar to revitalize depleted soils, remove toxins from effluent streams and soil, enhance animal health, strengthen concrete and asphalt, and much more.
    As has been known for some time, all biochars are not equal. They vary greatly in carbon and organic material content, surface area, bulk porosity, pH, and other characteristics. Without rigid process controls, biochar characterization can even vary when using the same production system and feedstocks. Due to its computer control of residence time, temperature profile, and process pressure, the CarbonStar system can consistently and repeatedly produce a standardized biochar of the highest quality. This enables the production of research grade biochar that can deliver farm-scale volumes possessing the same characterization as was developed in field studies. More sophisticated studies requiring pre-coating or spraying before or after the pyrolysis phase of the process call for a consistent process only available using the CarbonStar system.
  • Produces significant amounts of energy from a very small footprint 
    Solar and wind power requires six acres of land for each megawatt of capacity. Additional land is required for system security, access, and maintenance. The CarbonStar system is able to produce a megawatt of capacity in only 1,600 square feet plus a nominal amount of space for feedstock, biochar, and biofuel access and storage. A six acre CarbonStar facility could produce an estimated 20 to 30 megawatts of power plus more than sixty tons a day of biochar sequestering 180 tons of atmospheric CO2.
  • Does not produce harmful emissions
    The CarbonStar system is hermetically sealed and does not produce harmful emissions when using clean feedstock. Even when using toxic waste streams as feedstock, the output gases from the process can be compressed for further off site processing if necessary.
  • Does not contribute to waste streams
    Solar panels and turbine components produce significant amounts of waste at their end of life. Predictions tell us there will be 58 million tons of solar panel waste by 2045 as well as very significant volumes of turbine blade waste. Some of this material is not recyclable, is toxic, or whose destruction requires large enough amounts of energy to offset much of the previously avoided emissions.
    CarbonStar system uses readily available and recyclable components that do not require the enormous amounts of mining or water necessary to access the rare earth elements needed to build batteries or solar panels.
  • Can operate for many years with proper maintenance
    The CarbonStar system can provide many years of service with nominal amounts of preventative maintenance. System operations are not adversely affected by rain, snow, high winds, or lack of sunlight and wind.
  • Can be deployed to remote areas or disaster zones by road, rail, or air
    The CarbonStar is a mobile system that can be transported to the location of feedstock. It can be sent to areas storing agricultural waste, to disaster areas to process shredded wood, furniture, tornado or hurricane debris, or to other areas needing remedial services.
  • Eligible for multiple green credits or subsidies
    The CarbonStar produces a number of products and durably sequesters atmospheric CO2 resulting in opportunities to receive multiple green subsidies or credits.
  • Economical with attractive ROI without reliance on government credits or subsidies
    The CarbonStar can be operated profitably with attractive ROIs using readily available feedstocks.

2. The biochar is in activated form, enabling its use to clean contaminated water, draw toxins from soil, detoxify soil borne aflotoxins, and to recarbonize and replenish depleted agricultural soils with new microbial life, while enhancing existing arable soils resulting in increases in the soil’s atmospheric CO2 drawdown and crop yields. The biochar can be used to reclaim unproductive land, enhance animal health, drastically reduce the carbon footprint of concrete while increasing its crush strength and resistance to thermal impacts, and many other purposes.

3. The biogases and bio oils produced by the CarbonStar system may be used to generate electricity to power the mobile self-sustaining CarbonStar system. This can provide clean, carbon negative energy and wood vinegar or water from biomass, municipal solid waste, and human waste streams in remote communities. This energy and water may be used for heat, transport, or even to grow food in indoor farms where outdoor agriculture is not viable.

4. Seaweed and algae are the fasting growing forms of biomass on the planet. By using the CarbonStar system to process seaweed or algae, carbon may be sequestered from the oceans. This can not only reduce oceanic acidification and warming, but also reduce shoreline seaweed pollution while encouraging the establishment of large seaweed or algae cultivation industries to provide new habitats for ocean life as well as clean, carbon negative energy using the inexhaustible ocean waters or land-based facilities to grow rapidly growing biomass. The potential for long term job creation is enormous.

5. The CarbonStar system can use municipal solid waste (MSW) as well as dried waste water treatment residue and animal sewage waste as feedstock. Recycled plastics that are no longer recyclable may also be used as feedstock. When using MSW, the CarbonStar system can not only process existing paper and plastic waste streams, it may also be used to process materials drawn from existing or even capped landfills after removal of recyclable materials and some excessive sand. The CarbonStar system can be used in remote areas to process human waste streams to produce biochar, water, fuels, and energy, while reducing and eliminating disease causing extant waste dumps. The CarbonStar system’s ability to process dried agave has great potential to produce fuel, grow crops outside or indoors, and create jobs growing agave in desert regions.

6. The CarbonStar system can not only reduce the cost of carbon capture, permanent atmospheric CO2 sequestration, decarbonisation of oceans, processing of waste streams, and traditional agriculture, it can do so at a profit without the need of governmental subsidies. When including subsidies and credits for the production of bio-oils and green electricity as well as available carbon credits, biochar subsidies, and funds from carbon taxes, the income is further enhanced allowing the CarbonStar system to pay for itself quite quickly. Further, numerous long term, good paying, green jobs can be created in urban, rural, and even remote areas in Africa, on Native American Reservations, and other challenging locations.

7. Next generation CarbonStar systems will be shipped in standard shipping containers for transport by roadways, rail cars, ships, or heavy lift aircraft to any remote location. This will enable the production of biochar, biofuels, electricity, heat, and soil amendments anywhere feedstock is available.

Atmospheric and Oceanic Carbon Capture Technology

Our environment is becoming unhealthy due to excess levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Along with atmospheric CO2 we also have excess carbon dioxide in the oceans causing acidification and warming leading to loss of vital coral life and retarded shell formation of the crustaceans that populate the lower end of the food chain. 

The use of fossil fuels adds CO2 to the atmosphere while, less than optimal agricultural methods reduce the CO2 absorbing properties of the soil, one of the planet’s major carbon sinks. Further, decomposition of dead and decomposing biomass (DDB) emits 17 times more CO2 and methane, a very powerful greenhouse gas (GHG), than all human activity. 

Not only do these problems negatively impact the climate and food chain, but oncoming climate change poses serious challenges to continued, economically viable food production in areas where droughts, floods, and increasing temperatures seriously impair farmers’ ability to produce food. Water pollution and soil aflotoxins not only impact agriculture but also reduce the amount of potable water, an increasingly challenging problem. This leads to increases in CO2 emissions from fossil fuels used to transport food from less impacted areas, as well as increases in energy used to produce the equipment and supplies necessary for long distance food transport. 

Clearly, the problems facing us are not confined to excessive atmospheric CO2; thus any effective carbon capture technology must address ALL of the above problems. It must capture atmospheric and oceanic CO2, displace fossil fuels, revitalize the soil’s carbon capture and food production capabilities, reduce food transport distances, and address waste streams while capturing or eliminating methane emissions. 

Such a technology must also be efficient, economical and easy to produce, minimally demanding of earth’s resources in its production, scalable, easily and rapidly deployable to populated areas and remote third world locations, easy to operate, and recyclable at its end of life so as to not contribute to currently excessive waste streams. Such a technology must not only be as inexpensive as possible; it would be optimally viable if it could be operated at a profit. 

The challenge to create such a technology that satisfies all of the above requirements has now been met. It is the CarbonStar technology and process patented by CarbonStar Systems Inc. of Easthampton, MA. The CarbonStar system is proven and will enable large and small businesses, municipalities, and other organizations to sequester mega-tons of our legacy CO2 while improving their community and its coffers.

ENVIRONMENTAL FACT SHEET

1. For any level of CO2 in the atmosphere, the planet will heat to a fixed, stable temperature. The rate of CO2 rise has been increasing since 1950.
Current CO2 level as of July 2021 is 417.

2. Based on 400,000 years of ice core data and 60 years of monthly readings by Keeling, the time lag from the point where a certain CO2 level stabilizes to attainment of the planet’s stable temperature is centuries.

3. This means that even if we achieve Net Zero CO2 emissions today, we could still see an 8dF planetary temperature rise. This was acknowledged recently by CA Governor Gavin Newsome.

4. To avoid large areas of the planet from soon becoming uninhabitable, we must sequester millions of tons (gigatons) of CO2 from the atmosphere as soon as possible. Target amounts for sequestration are 300 gigatons of CO2 as soon as possible and from 10 to 20 gigatons per year for decades after in order to maintain a 1.5dC temperature rise. 

5. Current CO2 sequestration costs range from $75 per ton for accelerated mineral absorption technology to $775 to $2,000 per ton for direct air capture (DAC).

6. The CarbonStar system can sequester atmospheric CO2 for a negative cost per ton of CO2 because it operates at a profit. It can permanently sequester as much CO2 in less than three days as an acre of 50 year old mature forest can temporarily sequester in a year.

7. The CarbonStar system is a mobile, compact system that can be mounted on a flatbed truck or railcar. It can convert numerous forms of waste or virgin biomass into high purity carbon, bio-oils, biogases, and liquid soil amendments. It can also sequester carbon from the oceans by
using seaweed and kelp as a feedstock.

8. The CarbonStar system’s capital costs are a fraction of that of other CO2 sequestration technologies.

9. The CarbonStar system is patented in the USA with additional globally eligible patents pending.

It is generally accepted that an acre of mature forest could temporarily sequester up to 30,000 pounds of CO2 per
year. At its end of life, the tree decomposes and return much of that CO2 plus methane if decay is anaerobic

Carbon Dioxide Removal Fact Sheet

1. The CarbonStar System is a mobile system that is able to convert virtually any form of virgin or waste biomass into high purity biochar, high BTU storable bio-oils and biogases, and organic liquid wood vinegar to help replace fossil based soil amendments, herbicides, and pesticides.

2. The CarbonStar System is able to permanently sequester as much atmospheric CO2 in less than three days as an acre of mature forest can temporarily sequester in a year. It can achieve this while simultaneously producing significant amounts of bio oil and soil amendments. The CarbonStar system removes CO2 from the atmosphere 440 times faster than an acre of mature forest.

3. Solar and wind energy require 6 acres of land area to produce one megawatt of power during times when the sun is shining or wind is available. The power produced is not storable unless batteries are used. Such systems are valuable in many instances; however they have serious end-of-life waste creation and recycling issues when they become uneconomical to operate after 20 – 25 years.

4. Using CarbonStar system technology, it could be possible to produce up to one megawatt of power in an area of 1,600 square feet plus some space for feedstock storage and removal. The CarbonStar system can operate 24/7 regardless of weather, while storing its energy in the form of solid, liquid, and gaseous biofuels.

5. Current direct air CO2 capture systems (DAC) have capital costs approaching $250,000,000 or more while sequestering only 40 pounds of CO2 per million cubic feet of atmosphere processed. DAC systems are capable of sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere only. The CarbonStar system can sequester CO2 from both the atmosphere and the ocean. 

6. The CarbonStar system is mobile, thus can be moved to locations where feedstock is available. It can sequester CO2 profitably without any credits. With credits for CO2 removal, biofuel, electrical generation, it can produce expansion income for even more significant CO2 sequestration and community benefits.

How CarbonStar™ can help to solve major environmental challenges

1. For every ton of waste wood biomass processed, the CarbonStar system produces enoughbiochar and bio oil to permanently sequester one ton of atmospheric CO2, 10-40 gallons of wood vinegar for agricultural use, and provides 10,000 cubic feet of clean, high BTU, carbon neutral biogas. If used as a fuel, the CarbonStar bio oils could displace 60 to 90 gallons of fossil fuels.

2. The biochar is in activated form, enabling its use to clean contaminated water, draw toxins from soil, detoxify soil borne aflotoxins, and to recarbonize and replenish depleted agricultural soils with new microbial life, while enhancing existing arable soils resulting in increases in the soil’s atmospheric CO2 drawdown and crop yields. The biochar can be used to reclaim unproductive land, enhance animal health, drastically reduce the carbon footprint of concrete while increasing its crush strength and resistance to thermal impacts, and many other purposes.

3. The biogases and bio oils produced by the CarbonStar system may be used to generate electricity to power the mobile self-sustaining CarbonStar system. This can provide clean, carbon negative energy and wood vinegar or water from biomass, municipal solid waste, and human waste streams in remote communities. This energy and water may be used for heat, transport, or even to grow food in indoor farms where outdoor agriculture is not viable.

4. Seaweed and algae are the fasting growing forms of biomass on the planet. By using the CarbonStar system to process seaweed or algae, carbon may be sequestered from the oceans. This can not only reduce oceanic acidification and warming, but also reduce shoreline seaweed pollution while encouraging the establishment of large seaweed or algae cultivation industries to provide new habitats for ocean life as well as clean, carbon negative energy using the inexhaustible ocean waters or land-based facilities to grow rapidly growing biomass. The potential for long term job creation is enormous.

5. The CarbonStar system can use municipal solid waste (MSW) as well as dried waste water treatment residue and animal sewage waste as feedstock. Recycled plastics that are no longer recyclable may also be used as feedstock. When using MSW, the CarbonStar system can not only process existing paper and plastic waste streams, it may also be used to process materials drawn from existing or even capped landfills after removal of recyclable materials and some excessive sand. The CarbonStar system can be used in remote areas to process human waste streams to produce biochar, water, fuels, and energy, while reducing and eliminating disease causing extant waste dumps. The CarbonStar system’s ability to process dried agave has great potential to produce fuel, grow crops outside or indoors, and create jobs growing agave in desert regions.

6. The CarbonStar system can not only reduce the cost of carbon capture, permanent atmospheric CO2 sequestration, decarbonisation of oceans, processing of waste streams, and traditional agriculture, it can do so at a profit without the need of governmental subsidies. When including subsidies and credits for the production of bio-oils and green electricity as well as available carbon credits, biochar subsidies, and funds from carbon taxes, the income is further enhanced allowing the CarbonStar system to pay for itself quite quickly. Further, numerous long term, good paying, green jobs can be created in urban, rural, and even remote areas in Africa, on Native American Reservations, and other challenging locations.

7. Next generation CarbonStar systems will be shipped in standard shipping containers for transport by roadways, rail cars, ships, or heavy lift aircraft to any remote location. This will enable the production of biochar, biofuels, electricity, heat, and soil amendments anywhere feedstock is available.

The CarbonStar system incorporates a pyrolysis process whereby biomass feedstocks are heated in an oxygen depleted vacuum to drive off volatile substances, leaving a carbonaceous material called biochar behind. In the CarbonStar system, as diagramed below, various feedstocks pass through an airlock into an evacuated heated tubular vessel containing an auger to move the feed stock at a controlled speed along its length. This vacuum tube has been previously infused with a catalyst to accelerate the chemical activity within.

As the biomass heats up under a vacuum, volatiles are driven off as bio vapors after undergoing a process known as depolymerization which reduces long chain hydrocarbons to shorter chain hydrocarbons. When all volatiles have been driven off, the solid biochar leaves the vacuum tube through an airlock. The vapors are then drawn from the vacuum tube through a cyclonic cleaner to remove any dust. They then enter several heat exchangers where they are cooled, condensed, separated into two fractions then collected in one light and one heavy bio-oil storage tank. The remaining vapors which contain water vapor and very light hydrocarbons then pass through a chilled heat exchanger into the vacuum pump. The resulting liquids and bio gases then enter into a gas/liquid separator where the liquids move into a separation tank and the bio gases are either flared, compressed, or combusted in a boiler or electric generator to produce the power to operate the CarbonStar system. The remaining liquid separates into a very light hydrocarbon and an aqueous liquid known as wood vinegar. The light bio-oil can be added to the other heavier bio oils or used as a fuel or feedstock for subsequent processing. The wood vinegar is used in the agricultural sector to improve soil quality, as a plant nutrient to increase yields, or as pesticides or herbicides. 

Because the CarbonStar process captures all outputs as biochar, bio oils, bio gases, and organic fertilizers, it is much more effective at sequestering CO2 than other systems that produce biochar only. The CarbonStar life cycle analysis estimates that for every 3.7 tons of CO2e sequestered by the carbon star process, only .7 tons of CO2 are emitted by the CarbonStar process from forest to final markets.